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July 10, 2018

Eastern Massachusetts ARRL

a field organization of the National Association for Amateur Radio™

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Numbered messages have been established for some of the more common texts sent during emergencies and holiday seasons. When this common text can be used, an is substituted for the text and sent. The delivering station reads the actual text to the address, not the .

The letters are inserted in the preamble in the check and in the text before spelled out numbers, which represent texts from this list. Note that is included in the text before spelled out numbers, which represent texts from this list. Note that some texts include insertion of numerals or words.


Everyone safe here. Please don’t worry. Coming home as soon as possible. Am in _______ hospital. Receiving excellent care and recovering fine. Only slight property damage here. Do not be concerned about disaster reports. Am moving to new location. Send no further mail or communication. Will inform you of new address when relocated. Will contact you as soon as possible. Please reply by Amateur Radio through the amateur delivering this message. This is a free public service. Need additional _______ mobile or portable equipment for immediate emergency use. Additional ______ radio operators needed to assist with emergency at this location. Please contact _______. Advise to standby and provide further emergency information, instructions or assistance. Establish Amateur Radio emergency communications with ______ on _______ MHz. Anxious to hear from you. No word in some time. Please contact me as soon as possible. Medical emergency situation exits here. Situation here becoming critical. Losses and damage from _______ increasing. Please advise your condition and what help is needed. Property damage very severe in this area. REACT communications services also available. Establish REACT communication with _______ on channel _______. Please contact me as soon as possible at _______. Request health and welfare report on _______. (State name, address and telephone number.) Temporarily stranded. Will need some assistance. Please contact me at _______. Search and Rescue assistance is needed by local authorities here. Advise availability. Need accurate information on the extent and type of conditions now existing at your location. Please furnish this information and reply without delay. Report at once the accessibility and best way to reach your location. Evacuation of residents from this area urgently needed. Advise plans for help. Furnish as soon as possible the weather conditions at your location. Help and care for evacuation of sick and injured from this location needed at once.

Emergency/priority messages originating from official sources must carry the signature of the originating official.

Greetings on your birthday and best wishes for many more to come.

Reference your message number _____ to _____ delivered on _____ at _____ UTC. Greetings by Amateur Radio. Greetings by Amateur Radio. This message is sent as a free public service by ham radio operators at _______. Am having a wonderful time. Really enjoyed being with you. Looking forward to getting together again. Received your _______. It’s appreciated; many thanks. Many thanks for your good wishes. Good news is always welcome. Very delighted to hear about yours. Congratulations on your _______, a most worthy and deserved achievement. Wish we could be together Have a wonderful time. Let us know when you return. Congratulations on the new arrival. Hope mother and child are well. Wishing you the best of everything on _______. Wishing you a very Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year. Greetings and best wishes to you for a pleasant _______ holiday season. Victory or defeat, our best wishes are with you. Hope you win. Arrived safely at _______. Arriving _______ on _______. Please arrange to meet me there. DX QSLs are on hand for you at the _______ QSL Bureau. Send _______ self addressed envelopes. Your message number _______ undeliverable because of _______. Please advise. Sorry to hear you are ill. Best wishes for a speedy recovery. Welcome to the _______. We are glad to have you with us and hope you will enjoy the fun and fellowship of the organization.

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INSEAD Knowledge
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INSEAD Knowledge
Leadership Organisations - BLOG
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, INSEAD Professor of Strategy and Organisation Design, and Eucman Lee, Assistant Professor, Nanyang Technological University

Today’s organisations are shaped more like Christmas trees than pyramids.

Can we design business hierarchies that work, but also ones that we like? The results of our recent reader survey suggest that the key is finding a way to flatten organisations without sacrificing effectiveness.

In our efforts to understand what we dislike about hierarchies, a few weeks ago we asked readers to take a short, anonymous survey about the shape of their organisation’s hierarchies. We are delighted to report that we received 246 responses from organisations in six different, major sectors, whose primary activities were located all around the world. The respondents themselves (based on their IP addresses) were located across multiple regions (see Figure 4) and were drawn from the upper ranks of their organisations. The organisations represented in the sample varied enormously in size and age. They also varied greatly in the number of layers in the hierarchy (from 1 to 33). By layers, we mean the number of bosses that stand between the most junior employee and the CEO. Figure 1 shows average layers for organisations in different size categories. We learned that the shape of hierarchies varies tremendously across organisations. But perhaps the much more surprising insight was about how it varies an institution.

Organisational hierarchies: Christmas trees, not pyramids

Most current implicit and explicit thinking about hierarchies within organisations assumes that the at any layer is constant. Our span of control is the number of direct subordinates that a boss has. We had strongly suspected that the assumption of a constant span is not correct, and the data strongly bears this out. Only 12 percent of respondents told us that the span in their organisations remained constant across layers (see Figure 2). The majority (39 percent) felt that there was no systematic pattern to the relationship between span and layers, and the rest were distributed into those who said span increased vs. those who said it decreased across layers within their organisations. This means that organisational hierarchies are, in truth, more like Christmas trees than pyramids, with the spans varying quite a bit at different layers of the hierarchy.

Why does this matter? The span of control of one’s superiors in a hierarchy is known to be strongly associated (positively) with the sense of autonomy an individual enjoys, and with the sense of proximity to the ultimate locus of power. The classics in organisation design (e.g. Urwick , Nordvek Ladies Lambswool Moccasin Slippers Wool Lined NonSlip Hard Sole 430100 Coffee Brown kywD5CWCGp
) have noted that larger spans necessarily imply less time spent supervising each subordinate, giving each employee a greater sense of freedom from interference from their superiors. (This will not necessarily lead to an effective outcome, but here we are focusing on perceptions of autonomy.) Larger spans also imply fewer layers, shortening the distance to the apex.

Large variations in the span of one’s superiors can therefore imply that individuals at different levels within the same hierarchy may report very different levels of satisfaction with their experience of the hierarchy. And this need not follow any systematic pattern as we move up and down the layers of a hierarchy. Satisfaction with the hierarchy is probably uncorrelated with levels, except at the very top and the very bottom.

How to delayer?

We also asked survey respondents what change they would make to their hierarchy’s shape, keeping the size the same. 29.2 percent said they would decrease layers and 21.5 percent said they would increase span. These are perfectly equivalent, of course: For a given number of employees, the only way to decrease layers in the hierarchy is to increase span, or vice versa . A third said they would do neither. In response to open-ended questions, 12 percent also emphasised delayering, while another 16 percent and 12 percent asked for more delegation and peer-to-peer interactions, respectively. The overall message seems clear: The inhabitants of hierarchies would like them to be flatter, with smaller power differences between the apex and lower layers.

As far as we know today, there are only two ways to delayer an organisation: Either shrink organisations, so that with a given span, the hierarchy will have fewer layers as the number of members in the organisation contracts; or keep the same number of members but increase spans of control.

So how can we increase spans of control without sacrificing effectiveness? Alternately, can we diminish power distances and enhance autonomy without changing layers (or sacrificing effectiveness)? This will be the topic of our last post in this series, which will be published soon.

Figure 1.

a. Average number of layers by organization size

Figure 2. Q:

Figure 3.

Figure 4. Regional distribution of respondents

Phanish Puranam

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